Difference between revisions of "Software"

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(Processing code)
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== Processing code ==
 
== Processing code ==
for the conversion from the image file to the pen tip path
+
for the conversion from the image file to the pen tip path
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
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----
 
----
 
  
 
== python code ==
 
== python code ==

Revision as of 08:55, 13 February 2013

Image pre-processing

(assuming GIMP):
* Push up the contrast
* Image ==> Mode ==> Indexed
* B/W (1 bit palette)
* Dithering: Floyd-Steinberg


Processing code

for the conversion from the image file to the pen tip path

import toxi.geom.*;

// tsp variables 
int particleRouteLength;
Vec2D[] particles;
int[] particleRoute;
int maxParticles;

// image variable
PImage img; 

float millisLastFrame = 0;
float frameTime = 0;
// scale of the drawing
float s = 2.0;

void setup() {

  maxParticles = 15000;
  //img = loadImage("lenna-lg_BW_loRes.png");
  //img = loadImage("test.png");
  img = loadImage("lenna_BW_loRes2.png");
  size(img.width*(int)s, img.height*(int)s);
  //size(400, 600);
  // count black pixels
  int i;
  maxParticles = 0;
  for ( int x = 0; x < img.width; x++ ) {
    for ( int y = 0; y < img.height; y++ ) { 
      i = ( ( y * img.width ) + x ); // getting pixel index
      if ( img.pixels[i] == color( 0, 0, 0 ) ) {
        maxParticles++;
      }
    }
  }

  println("black dots: " + maxParticles);
  // allocate and fill points vector
  particles = new Vec2D[maxParticles];
  i = 0;
  int j = 0;
  for ( int x = 0; x < img.width; x++ ) {
    for ( int y = 0; y < img.height; y++ ) { 
      i = ( ( y * img.width ) + x );
      if ( img.pixels[i] == color( 0, 0, 0 ) ) {
        Vec2D p1 = new Vec2D(x, y);
        particles[j] = p1;
        j++;
      }
    }
  }
  millisLastFrame = millis();
  initPath();    // initialize path (NN heuristic)
  for (int l = 0; l < 5; l++ ) {
    // optimize path with 2-opt heuristic
    for (int k = 0; k < 5000; k++ ) optimizePath();
    // profiling ...
    frameTime = (millis() - millisLastFrame)/1000;
    millisLastFrame = millis();
    println("Frame time: " + millisLastFrame);
  }
  noLoop();
}

void initPath()
{ 
  int temp;
  println("initializing path (NN)");
  Vec2D p1, p2;
  particleRouteLength = maxParticles;
  // array of free ramaining particles to be queried
  boolean freeParticles[] = new boolean[maxParticles]; 
  particleRoute = new int[particleRouteLength]; 
  int closestParticle;
  float distMin;
  p1 = particles[0];
  freeParticles[0] = true;
  particleRoute[0] = 0;
  // Nearest neighbor ("Simple, Greedy") algorithm path optimization:
  int i = 0, j;
  float dx, dy, distance; 
  while (i < particleRouteLength) {
    distMin = Float.MAX_VALUE; // re-initialize mimimun distance value
    closestParticle = 0;      // re-initialize closest particle
    for (j = 0; j < particleRouteLength; j++) {
      if (freeParticles[j] == false) {
        p2 = particles[j];  // get next particle to calculate distance
        dx = p1.x - p2.x;
        dy = p1.y - p2.y;
        distance = (float) (dx*dx+dy*dy);  // Only looking for closest; do not need sqrt factor!
        if (distance < distMin) {
          closestParticle = j;  // update the closest particle index
          distMin = distance;  // update the minimum distance value
        }
      }
    }
    freeParticles[closestParticle] = true; // remove the particle from the ones to be queried
    particleRoute[i] = closestParticle; //set the next particle in the path
    i++; // increment while counter
  }
  // Initial routing is complete
  frameTime = (millis() - millisLastFrame)/1000;
  millisLastFrame = millis();
  println("Frame time: " + millisLastFrame);
}

void optimizePath() {
  // 2-opt heuristic optimization:
  // Identify a pair of edges that would become shorter by reversing part of the tour.
  int temp;
  //println("optimizing path (2-opt) " );
  for (int i = 0; i < 5000; ++i) {   // 1000 tests per frame; you can edit this number.
    int indexA = floor(random(particleRouteLength - 1));
    int indexB = floor(random(particleRouteLength - 1));
    if (Math.abs(indexA  - indexB) < 2)
      continue;
    if (indexB < indexA) {  // swap A, B.
      temp = indexB;
      indexB = indexA;
      indexA = temp;
    }

    Vec2D a0 = particles[particleRoute[indexA]];
    Vec2D a1 = particles[particleRoute[indexA + 1]];
    Vec2D b0 = particles[particleRoute[indexB]];
    Vec2D b1 = particles[particleRoute[indexB + 1]];

    // Original distance:
    float  dx = a0.x - a1.x;
    float  dy = a0.y - a1.y;
    float  distance = (float) (dx*dx+dy*dy);  // only a comparison; do not need sqrt factor! 
    dx = b0.x - b1.x;
    dy = b0.y - b1.y;
    distance += (float) (dx*dx+dy*dy);  //  only a comparison; do not need sqrt factor! 
    // Possible shorter distance?
    dx = a0.x - b0.x;
    dy = a0.y - b0.y;
    float distance2 = (float) (dx*dx+dy*dy);  //  only a comparison; do not need sqrt factor! 
    dx = a1.x - b1.x;
    dy = a1.y - b1.y;
    distance2 += (float) (dx*dx+dy*dy);  // only a comparison; do not need sqrt factor! 

    if (distance2 < distance) { // Reverse tour between a1 and b0.   
      int indexhigh = indexB;
      int indexlow = indexA + 1;
      while (indexhigh > indexlow) {
        temp = particleRoute[indexlow];
        particleRoute[indexlow] = particleRoute[indexhigh];
        particleRoute[indexhigh] = temp;
        indexhigh--;
        indexlow++;
      }
    }
  }
}


void draw() {
  //image(img, 0, 0);
  image(img, width*s, height*s);
  int i = 0;
  stroke(128, 128, 255);    // Stroke color (blue)
  strokeWeight (.5);        // stroke weight
  println("in draw, n.part : " + particleRouteLength);

  // loop the particles drawing a line between successive points
  for ( i = 0; i < (particleRouteLength - 1); ++i) {
    Vec2D p1 = particles[particleRoute[i]];
    Vec2D p2 = particles[particleRoute[i + 1]];
    line(p1.x*s, p1.y*s, p2.x*s, p2.y*s);
  }
}

python code

for the low level controller
from time import sleep
from math import pi
import RPi.GPIO as GPIO

# systems parameters
r_p = 18.0 #............... pulley radius [mm]
d_p = 1500.0 #............. pulley distance [mm]
d_p05 = dp * 0.5 #......... half pulley distance [mm]
s_a = 3.5 * (2*pi/360) #... step angle [rad]

# drawing parameters
s = 2.0 #.................. drawing scale [-]

# initialize output pins
GPIO.setup(13, GPIO.OUT)
#GPIO.setup(15, GPIO.OUT)
#GPIO.setup(16, GPIO.OUT)
#GPIO.setup(15, GPIO.OUT)
#GPIO.setup(16, GPIO.OUT)
#GPIO.setup(15, GPIO.OUT)
#GPIO.setup(16, GPIO.OUT)
#GPIO.setup(15, GPIO.OUT)


pos = [240, 240]	#.... set initial position vector (x,Y)
len_curr = getStringsLen(pos_init, d_p05, s)	# get initial string

for i in list
	pos_next = path[i]
	len_next = getStringsLen(pos_next, d_p05, s)
	dl = len_next - len_curr
	ds = dl/s_a
	

def getStringsLen(pos_xy, halfPullDist, scale)
	x2 = (pos_xy[0] * scale)**2
	x2b2 = (halfPullDist - pos_xy[0] * scale)**2
	y2 = (pos_xy[1] * scale)**2
	return [sqrt(x2+y2) , sqrt(x2b2+y2)]